MOSCOW (AP) _ Here, as published by the English-language service of the official news agency Tass, are excerpts from Mikhail S. Gorbachev's speech on Soviet television Wednesday:

On positive aspects of the Icelandic superpower summit:

The Reykjavik meeting greatly facilitated, probably for the first time in many decades, our search for nuclear disarmament. I believe now that, as a result of the meeting, we have risen to a higher level not only in analyzing the situation, but also in determining the objectives and framework of possible accords on nuclear disarmament. Having found ourselves a few steps from the practical agreement on such a difficult and vitally important problem, we all grew to understand to a far greater extent the danger facing the world, to feel stronger the need for immediate solutions and, what is most important, we know at present that it is realistic and possible to avert the nuclear threat.

As a result of laborious efforts and acute arguments, the two sides' positions drew reassuringly closer together on two out of three directions.

We attach fundamental importance to these accords between the U.S.S.R. and the United States: they have shown that nuclear disarmament is possible.

On negative aspects since Reykjavik:

The forces opposed to the trend toward disarmament are great. We felt that both during the meeting and at present.

Quarters linked with militarism, with profits coming from the arms race, are clearly scared. They are doing their utmost to cope with the new situation and, coordinating their actions, are trying in every way to mislead people, to place under their control the sentiment of broad sections of the world public, to suppress the quest for peace, to hinder governments from taking a clear-cut position at this decisive moment in history.

Evidently there is no small number of politicians in the West whom the Geneva talks suit as a screen, not as a forum for seeking accords.

On alleged U.S. distortion of the summit and ''Star Wars'':

The U.S. administration is now trying in every way to convince people that a possible major success with reaching concrete agreements was not achieved owing to the unyieldingness of the Soviet side over the program of the so- called Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI).

It is clear to every sober-minded person that if we embark upon the road of deep cuts and, then, complete elimination of nuclear weapons, it is essential to rule out any possibility which could be used by either the Soviet or the U.S. side for gaining unilateral military superiority.

To eliminate nuclear weapons as a means of deterring American aggression, and to get the threat from outer space in return - only politically naive people can accept that. There are none in the Soviet leadership.

On U.S. expulsions of Soviet diplomats:

Besides distorting the entire picture of the Reykjavik negotiations ... they adopted in recent days actions that look simply wild in the normal human view after such an important meeting between the two countries' top leaders.

I mean the expulsion of another 55 Soviet Embassy and consular staff from the United States. We will adopt measures in response, of course, very tough measures on an equal footing, so to say. We are not going to put up with such outrageous practices. But now, I would like to say the following.

What kind of government is that, what can one expect from it in other affairs in the international arena? To what limits does the unpredictabili ty of its actions go?

It turns out that it has no constructive proposals on key matters of disarmament and that it does not even have a desire to maintain the atmosphere which is essential for a normal continuation of the dialogue. It appears that Washington is not prepared for any of these.

A conclusion suggests itself. It is confirmed by a considerable experience which has already been gained by now. Every time when a gleam of hope appears in approaches to big matters of Soviet-American relations and to a settlement of issues involving the interests of the whole of mankind, a provocation is immediately staged with an eye to frustrating the possibility of a positive solution and to poisoning the atmosphere.

Where is the true visage of the U.S. administration? ... Coming into view is quite an unattractive portrait of the administration of the great country, the administration which is quick in taking disruptive actions. Either the president is unable to cope with the entourage which literally breathes hatred for the Soviet Union ... or he himself wants that. At all events, there is no keeping the hawks in the White House in check. And this is very dangerous.

On radio jamming:

America itself, availing itself of the fact that we are not close neighbors, has separated itself from our radio information by the medium waves band - receivers in America are only of that kind. The president could not say anything to that either.

Then I suggested to him, 'Let us do it this way: We cease jamming the Voice of America broadcasts while you give us an opportunity to set up radio broadcasts beamed at the United States in U.S. territory or somewhere nearby so that the broadcasts would reach the population of your country.' The president promised to think about it.

On President Reagan accepting strategic arms being scrapped:

With all responsiblity as a participant in the talks I state: the president did, albeit without special enthusiasm, consent to the elimination of all - I emphasize - all, not only certain individual, strategic offensive arms. To be destroyed precisely over 10 years, in two stages.

On Soviet proposals now:

The Soviet Union has put the maximum of goodwill into its proposals. They still stand. Everything that has been said by way of their substantiation and development remains in force.