Summit Side Shows: Sometimes More Interesting Than the Main Tent With AM-Summit Rdp, Bjt
MOSCOW (AP) _ Eight Soviet kids go to school at the Phillips Academy in Andover, Mass. Vladimir Horowitz performs in Moscow. Scientists from the superpower nations agree to work together to combat the ″Greenhouse effect″ which is overheating the world.
Those are some of the consequences from the first meeting between Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev in neutral Switzerland 2 1/2 years ago.
Agreements reached in Geneva dealing with the environment; air travel; cultural, scientific and educational exchanges; nuclear tests and reduction of the risk of nuclear war led to the following events:
-A historic treaty eliminating medium-range nuclear weapons was signed by Reagan and Gorbachev at their third meeting in Washington last December. The groundwork had been done in Geneva.
-Eight Soviet high school students spent more than a month at the Phillips Academy and eight American teen-agers studied at Novosibirsk School of Physics and Mathematics in Siberia.
-Horowitz, the famous pianist, performed in Moscow in April 1986, the first time he played in his homeland in 60 years.
-Pan American World Airways and Aeroflot formed a joint venture for direct flights between Moscow and New York.
-Members of Congress exchanged views on security and human rights with Soviet officials in a live television show beamed directly to audiences in both countries.
-Twenty Americans toured the Soviets’ test site at Semipalatinsk in Central Asia as part of an agreement to monitor nuclear tests; Soviet scientists did the same at a site in Nevada.
-The National Resources Defense Council signed an agreement with the Soviet Academy of Sciences to begin work on a conservation project designed to abate climate changes resulting from the warming of the globe, the ″greenhouse″ syndrome.
-Eleven Soviet researchers attended a symposium at the University of Iowa last October on how to transport pesticides and the presence of chemicals in the environment.
-The two sides agreed to open consulates in Kiev and in New York. These have yet to be established, although preliminary work has started.
Peripheral agreements are sure to grow out of the fourth Gorbachev-Reagan summit, opening Sunday in Moscow. Not all summits lead to agreements; summit No. 2, the October 1986 meeting in Reykjavik, Iceland, was a public failure, ending in harsh words and recriminations on both sides.
″Much of this is dependent on changes in the Soviet society,″ said Greg Guroff, speaking of the burgeoning number of people-to-people exchanges. Guroff is acting coordinator of the U.S.-Soviet Exchange Initiative at the U.S. Information Agency.
The treaty signed in Washington that calls for the elimination of the nuclear missiles with a range of between 300 and 3,400 miles is the most significant agreement reached by the superpowers at the summit.
But it has overshadowed some of the less-publicized results of the summit meetings, which are often the climax of months and years of behind-the-scene diplomatic negotiations.
One summit issue left over from 1985 - steps to halt the spread of nuclear weapons to nations which don’t have them - may resurface in Moscow, U.S. officials said. The two sides also may sign an agreement limiting experiments at the Soviet and American test sites, the Americans say.
The Reagan administration has refused to push for ratification of a 1974 treaty on peaceful nuclear explosions for engineering purposes and a 1976 treaty that limits the size of such explosions until verification for both is improved.
But for the average citizen of either country, such agreements are abstract and remote. Agreements in the scientific, educational and cultural fields are more likely to have results people can see, understand and applaud.
U.S. officials are thrilled with the enthusiasm Americans and Soviets have shown for getting to know each other, but they say the Soviets have a long way to go in matching the U.S. response to exchange programs.
″It’s a dramatic change compared to the past, and the potential growth is quite exciting,″ Guroff said. In 1988, for example, about 15,000 Soviets will visit the United States, while about 120,000 Americans will travel to Russia.
The 15,000 figure - high compared to the past - is tiny when put into perspective, Guroff said. China has sent about 15,000 students to the United States as well as many more tourists.