Today is Tuesday, June 23, the 174th day of 2015. There are 191 days left in the year.

Highlights in history on this date:

963 - Luxembourg becomes an independent principality when Siegfried, Count of Ardennes, exchanges his lands for a small but strategically placed Roman castle along the Alzette River.

1532 - England's King Henry VIII and France's King Francis I sign secret alliance against Holy Roman Emperor Charles V.

1757 - British under Robert Clive defeat forces of the Nawab of Bengal at Plassey, leaving British masters in Bengal.

1760 - Austrians defeat Prussians guarding passes into Silesia at Landshut, Bavaria.

1797 - Peasant "Army of the Holy Faith" enters Naples, ending the republic installed by the French and paving the way for the return of the Bourbon king.

1848 - "June Days" civil war begins when workers fired by the government put up barricades in Paris. They are brutally put down by the army three days later.

1934 - Saudi Arabia and defeated Yemen sign peace treaty after seven-week border war.

1952 - U.S. Air Force bombs hydroelectric plants in North Korea.

1956 - Colonel Gamal Abdel Nasser is elected president of Egypt.

1970 - Japanese students clash with police in Tokyo in huge demonstration against continuing U.S.-Japan security pact.

1980 - Sanjay Gandhi, son of Indian prime minister Indira Gandhi and her "heir apparent," dies when his aerobatics plane crashes.

1985 - All 329 people aboard an Air-India Boeing 747 die as it crashes into the Atlantic Ocean on a flight from Toronto to Bombay. Sikh separatists are accused of planting a bomb.

1992 - With a peace platform, the Labor Party defeats ruling right-wing Likud Party in Israeli elections.

1993 - Nigeria's military dictator, Gen. Ibrahim Babangida, voids results of presidential elections and halts a return to democracy.

1994 - Some 2,500 French troops head into Rwanda to protect civilians, the first outside forces sent there since U.N. Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali appealed for international involvement to stop the genocide.

1997 - In the Central African Republic, soldiers fire on foreign peacekeepers in the third major rebellion since May 1996. The army objects to the 1993 election of President Ange-Felix Patasse and eventually deposes him in 2003.

1998 - The first large-scale test of an AIDS vaccine begins in the U.S. city of Philadelphia when the first of 5,000 volunteers get injections.

1999 - The European Union says it will fund efforts to undermine Slobodan Milosevic's rule in Yugoslavia.

2002 - China allows 26 North Korean migrants who had sought asylum in foreign diplomatic compounds in Beijing to leave the country for South Korea.

2008 - A Pakistani court rules that former Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif is not eligible to run in upcoming parliamentary elections because he had been convicted of a crime.

2010 - President Barack Obama fires his loose-lipped Afghanistan commander, a seismic shift for the military order in wartime, and chooses Gen. David Petraeus, the highly regarded former commander in Iraq, to replace him.

2011 - Syrian troops push to the Turkish border in their sweep against a 3-month-old pro-democracy movement, sending panicked refugees, including children, rushing across the frontier to safe havens in Turkey.

2012 — Pope Benedict XVI convenes a special meeting of cardinals for advice on how to deal with the Vatican's leaked document scandal.

2013 — Islamic militants disguised as policemen kill 10 foreign climbers and a Pakistani guide in a brazen overnight raid against their campsite at the base of one of the world's tallest mountains in northern Pakistan.

2014 — An Egyptian court convicts three Al-Jazeera journalists and sentences them to seven years in prison on terrorism- related charges after a trail dismissed by rights groups as a sham.

Today's Birthdays:

Josephine, French empress and wife of Napoleon Bonaparte (1763-1814); Edward VIII (Duke of Windsor), abdicated king of England (1894-1972); Anna Akhmatova (pseudonym of Anna Andreyevna Gorenko), Russian poet (1889-1966); James Edward Meade, English economist (1907-1995); Alan Turing, British mathematician and computer pioneer (1912-1954); Bob Fosse, U.S. dancer/choreographer (1927-1987); Randy Jackson, talent judge on "American Idol" (1956--); Frances McDormand, U.S. actress (1957--).

Thought For Today:

Even the merest gesture is holy if it is filled with faith — Franz Kafka, author and poet (1883-1924).