Marshall Clagett

PRINCETON, N.J. (AP) _ Marshall Clagett, one of the world's pre-eminent historians on ancient and medieval science and the work of the Greek mathematician Archimedes, died Friday. He was 89.

Clagett worked for the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton for the last four decades.

He wrote extensively about Archimedes, publishing a five-volume work, ``Archimedes in the Middle Ages,'' over a period of 20 years.

In his most recent work about science in ancient Egypt, Clagett used computers to interpret hieroglyphics. At the time of his death, he was also completing the fourth and final volume of a work titled ``Ancient Egyptian Science.''

He taught at Columbia University, as well as the University of Wisconsin, before joining the Institute for Advanced Study.


Robert H. Johnston

BRIGHTON, N.Y. (AP) _ Robert H. Johnston, whose work in the digital restoration of archaeological finds resulted in ways to read ancient degraded texts such as the Dead Sea Scrolls, died Oct. 19. He was 77.

Johnston, a Rochester Institute of Technology professor whose career at the college began in 1970, was considered a pioneer in the digital capture and processing of degraded images.

In March 2004, he and Lucanus Morgan, an RIT imaging science alumnus, spent 10 days in Tel Aviv to digitize a part of an ancient manuscript known as the Temple Scroll, the longest of the Dead Sea Scrolls at 28 feet. The Dead Sea Scrolls date back to the time of Christ.

Johnston participated in more than 60 archaeological excavations throughout the Middle and Far East. His work also included decoding fragments of the Papyrus documents containing firsthand accounts of daily life in ancient Egypt.