5 key figures of Poland’s shift to democracy
WARSAW, Poland (AP) — Poland’s Solidarity movement played a central role in the drama of ousting communism from Europe and in the breakup of the Soviet Union. Here are five figures in Poland’s transition from communism to democracy, as the nation celebrates 25 years since the June 4, 1989, parliamentary elections that made the transformation possible.
Solidarity leader. Nobel peace laureate. First popularly elected president of newly democratic Poland. Walesa’s heroic journey began when he was fired from the Gdansk Shipyard for worker rights activity. He returned to join a 1980 strike and became Solidarity’s charismatic leader. Poland’s communist leadership imposed martial law, temporarily crushing Solidarity. That only galvanized Polish support for the movement. In 1988, Walesa led a new wave of strikes that brought the communists to the negotiating table. The resulting June 4, 1989, partly free elections were a landslide for Solidarity, which formed a government. Walesa was elected president in 1990 for a five-year term.
POPE JOHN PAUL II
From his balcony on St. Peter’s Square, John Paul II became the spiritual heart of the Solidarity movement. Elected pope in 1978, his visit to his native Poland the following year rallied millions to open-air Masses, making the Poles realize they could unite in a huge, like-minded democratic force. The pope’s words suggesting that Poland should change inspired the Solidarity movement. He was made a saint on April 27, nine years after his death.
Michnik was the intellectual force behind Solidarity. The historian spent five years in communist prisons in the 1980s. He served as adviser to Walesa in Solidarity and took part in the “Round Table” talks that led to the elections being marked this week. He has been the editor of the influential “Gazeta Wyborcza” newspaper since its May 1989 first issue. The paper was born of a desire to provide unbiased information to voters in the June 4 elections.
The intellectual Mazowiecki was Walesa’s adviser during and after the 1980 and 1988 strikes. He was detained under martial law for one year. Mazowiecki was a major figure in the power-sharing talks with the communists in 1989. He was democratic Poland’s first prime minister from 1989-1990. He died in November, aged 86.
GEN. WOJCIECH JARUZELSKI
Poland’s last communist leader was Solidarity’s chief adversary. He maintained that his 1981 imposition of martial law prevented a Soviet invasion. Some 100 people lost their lives under the clampdown, a loss he said he deeply deplored. Jaruzelski was indicted for imposing martial law, but courtroom red tape and his own ill health stalled the trial. He died in a hospital on May 25, at age 90, following a stroke.