List of Recent Nobel Winners in Physics With AM-Nobels Bjt
Undated (AP) _ Here are the winners of the Nobel Prize in Physics since 1970 and their accomplishments.
1970: Louis Neel, French, discovery in solid-state physics; and Hannes Alfven, Swedish, theory underlying the relationship between magnets and electrically conducting liquids.
1971: Dennis Gabor, British, invention of holography.
1972: John Bardeen, Leon Cooper, John R. Schrieffer, all American, development of theory explaining superconductivity.
1973: Ivar Giaever and Leo Esaki, Americans, and Brian David Josephson, British, discovery of how electrons tunnel through conductors to become superconductors.
1974: Martin Ryle, English, techniques in using radiotelescopes; and Antony Hewish, English, role in the discovery of pulsars.
1975: L. James Rainwater, American, and Aage N. Bohr and Ben R. Mottleson, Danish, discovery of motion inside nuclei and how this affects the shape of the nuclei.
1976: Samuel C.C. Ting and Burton Richter, Americans, discovery of a new subatomic ″J″ particle.
1977: John Hasbrouck Van Vleck and Philip W. Anderson, Americans, and Sir Nevill Francis Mott, British, theories of electronic circuitry and solid-state
physics used in computer memories, lasers, transistors, solar energy cells and office copying machines.
1978: Pyotr Kapitsa, Soviet Union, and Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson, Americans, discovered cosmic background radiation theoretically left over from the ″Big Bang″ that began the universe.
1979: Steven Weinberg and Sheldon L. Glashow, Americans, and Abdus Salam, Pakistani, theories involving weak and electromagnetic interaction between elementary particles.
1980: James W. Cronin and Val L. Fitch, Americans, symmetry of subatomic particles, instrumental in development of the ″Big Bang″ theory of the creation of the universe.
1981: Nicolaas Boembergen and Arthur Schawlow, Americans, development of laser spectroscopy; and Kai M. Siegbahn, Swedish, contributions to development of high-resolution electron spectroscopy.
1982: Kenneth G. Wilson, American, method of analyzing basic changes in matter due to pressure and temperature.
1983: Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar and William A. Fowler, Americans, explorations of what happens as stars age, consume their nuclear fuel, form new elements and finally collapse and die.
1984: Carlo Rubbia, Italy, and Simon van der Meer, Dutch, development of particle detector and discovery of subatomic ″W″ and ″Z″ particles.
1985: Klaus von Klitzing, West German, discoveries related to the Hall effect, describing deflection of electrons in a current affected by a magnetic field, with applications in computers.
1986: Ernst Ruska, West Germany, fundamental work in electron optics and design of the first electron microscope; and Gerd Binnig, West Germany, and Heinrich Rohrer, Switzerland, design of the scanning tunneling microscope.
1987: Georg Bednorz, West Germany, and K. Alex Mueller, Switzerland, for discovery of new superconducting materials.
1988: Leon Lederman, Melvin Schwartz and Jack Steinberger, all of the United States, cited for their work with neutrino beams that ″opened entirely new opportunities for research into the innermost structure and dynamics of matter.″
1989: Norman F. Ramsey, United States, for developing method of structure of atoms that led to atomic clock used as the international time standard, and Hans G. Dehmelt, United States, and Wolfgang Paul, West Germany, for method to isolate single atoms.