Key events in Egypt since the 2011 uprising
CAIRO (AP) — Here are some key events from more than three years of turmoil and transition in Egypt:
— Feb. 11, 2011: Mubarak steps down after 18 days of nationwide protests against his nearly 30-year reign. The military takes over, dissolving parliament and suspending the constitution after the Jan. 25 uprising, which left hundreds of protesters dead in clashes with security forces.
— Nov. 28, 2011_Feb. 15, 2012: The Muslim Brotherhood wins nearly half the seats in multi-stage elections for the first post-Mubarak parliament, while ultraconservative Salafi Islamists take another quarter. The remainder goes to liberal, independent and secular politicians.
— June 18, 2012: The Muslim Brotherhood’s candidate Mohammed Morsi defeats Ahmed Shafiq, Mubarak’s last prime minister, with 51.7 percent of the vote in a runoff presidential election, taking office on June 30 as Egypt’s first freely elected leader.
— Aug. 12, 2012: Morsi removes the defense minister and military chief, Field Marshal Hussein Tantawi, and replaces him with Lt. Gen. Abdel-Fattah el-Sissi.
— Nov. 22, 2012: Morsi unilaterally decrees greater powers for himself, giving his decisions immunity from judicial review and barring the courts from dissolving an assembly charged with drafting a new constitution. The move sparks days of protests.
— Dec. 15 - Dec. 22, 2012: Egyptians approve a constitution drafted and hastily passed by Islamists amid protests and walk-outs by other groups, with 63.8 percent voting in favor but a low turnout of 32.9 percent.
— Mar. 12, 2013: Egypt rejects an offer of a $750 million rescue loan from the IMF. In the coming months, fuel and electricity shortages stoke discontent, while a campaign called Tamarod, or “Rebel,” gathers signatures calling for Morsi’s removal and early presidential elections.
— June 30, 2013: On Morsi’s anniversary in office, millions of Egyptians begin days of massive demonstrations demanding his resignation. The military gives him 48 hours to reach an agreement with his opponents, but he vows to remain in office.
— July 3, 2013: El-Sissi announces Morsi’s removal, installing Constitutional Court Chief Justice Adly Mansour as interim president. Tens of thousands of Morsi supporters camp out in two Cairo sit-ins demanding his return.
— July 8, 2013: Egyptian soldiers fire on Morsi supporters protesting outside a military facility in Cairo, killing over 50. Each side blames the other for the violence. Mansour sets a timeline for amending the constitution and electing a new president and parliament by mid-February. The Brotherhood boycotts the process.
— Aug. 14, 2013: More than 600 people, mostly Morsi supporters, are killed when police clear the two pro-Morsi sit-ins in Cairo. Islamists retaliate by torching government buildings, churches and police stations. Hundreds more die in subsequent violence.
— Aug. 19, 2013: Suspected Islamic militants kill 25 policemen in the Sinai Peninsula. Militant attacks escalate in Sinai over the following months, with shootings, bombings and suicide attacks against security officials and troops.
— Sept. 23, 2013: An Egyptian court orders the Brotherhood banned and its assets confiscated.
— Oct. 9, 2013: The U.S. suspends delivery of tanks, helicopters and fighter jets to Egypt in a show of disapproval over the anti-Brotherhood crackdown.
— Nov. 4, 2013: Morsi appears for the first time since his ouster, at the opening of his trial on charges of inciting violence, the first of several court cases against him. Some charges against him carry the death penalty.
— Dec. 24, 2013: A car bomb rips through a security headquarters in the Nile Delta city of Mansoura, killing 16 people, almost all policemen, in the deadliest attack since Morsi’s ouster. The Sinai-based militant group Ansar Beit al-Maqdis claimed responsibility.
— Dec. 25, 2013: The government designates the Brotherhood a terrorist organization.
— Jan. 14, 2014: Egyptians vote in favor of amendments to the constitution adopted under Morsi. The referendum sees 98.1 percent of voters approve the measure. Turnout is less than 39 percent.
— Jan. 25: Clashes between security forces and protesters on the third anniversary of the 2011 uprising leave at least 49 dead. Estimates of the total death toll from political violence since Morsi’s overthrow now run into the thousands.
— Mar. 24: An Egyptian court sentences to death nearly 530 suspected Morsi supporters over a deadly attack on a police station, capping a swift, two-day mass trial in which defense attorneys were not allowed to present their case. The death sentences are reduced to 37 after review.
— Mar. 26: Ending months of anticipation, el-Sissi announces that he has resigned from the military and will run for president.
— April 28: An Egyptian court sentences to death the Muslim Brotherhood’s spiritual leader and 682 other people over violence and the killing of policemen. The verdict, which can be appealed, sparks an international outcry.
- May 3- A three-week campaigning period begins. El-Sissi doesn’t appear in public rallies, instead holding meetings and giving pre-recorded television interviews. His rival, leftist politician Hamdeen Sabahi, rallies around Egypt and has support from some youth groups.
- May 26-27: Egyptians vote in a presidential election, with el-Sissi widely expected to win by a landslide.