Chronology of Superpower Summits
WASHINGTON (AP) _ The meeting Sunday in Helsinki, Finland, between President Bush and Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev will be the 22nd superpower summit.
Summits began in World War II as the Allies debated the shape of the postwar world. Here is a list:
- Tehran, Iran, Nov. 28-Dec. 1, 1943:
The Big Three - President Roosevelt, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill and Josef Stalin of the Soviet Union - discuss the war against Germany. Stalin presses for a second front to relieve Soviet armies.
- Yalta, Soviet Union, Feb. 4-11, 1945:
Roosevelt, Churchill and Stalin discuss the postwar world, granting Stalin influence over the nations that ultimately form the Soviet bloc.
- Potsdam, Germany, July 17-Aug. 2, 1945:
President Truman and Clement Atlee, Churchill’s successor, face Stalin. Truman tells Stalin the United States has a powerful new weapon, but doesn’t say what it is.
- Geneva, July 18-23, 1955:
President Eisenhower meets with Soviet Premier Nikolai Bulganin and the leaders of England and France to discuss occupied Germany.
- Camp David, Md., Sept. 25-27, 1959:
Nikita Khrushchev, as Soviet premier, meets Eisenhower during a two-week visit to the United States. They agree to reopen talks on the status of Berlin and issue a communique calling disarmament an important issue.
- Paris, May 16, 1960:
The meeting collapses on opening day when Khrushchev demands an apology for the American U-2 spy plane shot down over the Soviet Union. He withdraws an invitation for Eisenhower to visit the Soviet Union.
- Vienna, Austria, June 3-4, 1961:
President Kennedy and Khrushchev meet, but talks on a nuclear test ban and arms control produce no agreement. They issue a joint communique affirming their support for a neutral Laos and willingness to maintain contact.
- Glassboro, N.J., June 23-25, 1967:
President Johnson and Soviet Premier Alexei Kosygin meet but resolve no differences over the Vietnam War, the Arab-Israeli war and nuclear arms.
- Moscow, May 22-24, 1972:
President Nixon and Soviet President Leonid Brezhnev meet, the first time a U.S. president has visited Moscow. They sign agreements on health, the environment and space and scientific cooperation.
- Washington, June 18-25, 1973:
Brezhnev and Nixon sign a pledge to seek agreement to end the nuclear arms race in 1974 and a pledge to cooperate in avoiding confrontations.
- Moscow, June 27-July 3, 1974:
Nixon and Brezhnev sign a number of documents on nuclear weapons, including one limiting underground nuclear explosions. Secretary of State Henry Kissinger says impeachment proceedings hamper Nixon.
- Vladivostok, U.S.S.R., Nov. 23-24, 1974:
President Ford and Brezhnev reach tentative agreement to limit the number of strategic offensive nuclear weapons and delivery vehicles, including multiple-warhead missiles.
- Helsinki, Finland, July 30-Aug. 2, 1975:
Ford and Brezhnev are among leaders of 35 nations meeting on European security. They report progress on strategic arms issues.
- Vienna, June 15-18, 1979:
President Carter and Brezhnev conclude seven years of strategic arms limitation talks with the signing of the SALT II treaty.
- Geneva, Nov. 19-21, 1985:
President Reagan and Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev spend far more time in private sessions than planned but do not reach any breakthrough on major issues. Reagan calls it a ″fresh start″ in relations.
- Reykjavik, Iceland, Oct. 11-12, 1986:
Reagan and Gorbachev hold detailed talks on eliminating nuclear weapons but disagree over the U.S. strategic defense initiative, known as Star Wars.
- Washington, Dec. 8-10, 1987:
Reagan and Gorbachev sign a treaty to eliminate intermediate-range nuclear forces, but disagreement over Star Wars blocks progress on a strategic arms reduction treaty.
- Moscow, May 29-June 2, 1988:
Reagan and Gorbachev exchange the ratified texts of the INF treaty, discuss strategic and conventional arms and stroll in Red Square. Reagan softens his criticism of Soviet human rights abuses; Gorbachev complains of missed opportunities.
- New York, Dec. 7, 1988:
Reagan, Gorbachev and President-elect Bush meet on Governor’s Island in New York harbor to discuss Gorbachev’s announcement at the United Nations that the Soviet Union will reduce its armed forces by 500,000 men and withdraw 50,000 from Europe. Gorbachev rushes home to cope with the earthquake in Armenia.
- Marsaxlokk Bay, Malta, Dec. 2-3, 1989:
Bush and Gorbachev meet aboard a Soviet cruise liner for dockside talks that produce no breakthroughs in superpower relations. They agree it is time to end the Cold War, and Bush pledges to take steps to ease U.S. tariffs on Soviet exports.
- Washington, May 30-June 3, 1990:
Bush and Gorbachev seal agreements to slash long-range nuclear weapons, halt production of chemical weapons and lift trade barriers against Moscow. The two also discuss Lithuanian independence, German unity and other developments in Eastern Europe.