Nobel Winners Announced This Week
With the Nobel Prize for literature awarded Thursday to Chinese writer Gao Xingjian, all that remains is the winner of the Peace Prize, to be announced Friday in Oslo, Norway. The other Nobel prizes awarded this week:
_ James J. Heckman of the University of Chicago and Daniel L. McFadden of the University of California at Berkeley won the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economics on Wednesday for developing theories on how people work and live, research that contributed greatly to employment training, public transportation, communication systems and other areas.
_ American Jack Kilby, who invented the integrated circuit at Texas Instruments in 1958, shared the physics prize announced Tuesday with two physicists whose work contributed to satellite and cell phone technology: Herbert Kroemer of the University of California-Santa Barbara and Zhores Alferov of the A.F. Ioffe Physico-Technico Institute in St. Petersburg, Russia.
_ Alan Heeger of the University of California-Santa Barbara, Alan MacDiarmid of the University of Pennsylvania and Hideki Shirakawa of the University of Tsukuba in Japan won the chemistry prize announced Tuesday for their discoveries in the use of plastics to conduct electricity.
_ Swede Arvid Carlsson the University of Goteborg in Sweden, Paul Greengard of Rockefeller University in New York and Eric Kandel of Columbia University in New York won the medicine prize Monday for discoveries about how messages are transmitted between brain cells, leading to treatments of Parkinson’s disease and depression.
Swedish King Carl XVI Gustaf will present the prizes as always on Dec. 10, the anniversary of Nobel’s death in 1896.