More Efforts Being Made To Save Underwater Survivors
BOSTON (AP) _ The survival nearly two years ago of a 4-year-old boy who spent 20 minutes under the icy waters of Lake Michigan and new knowledge of lifesaving techniques have inspired doctors to redouble efforts to revive drowning victims, but success has been limited.
″There are a few lucky people who survive,″ said Dr. Charles J. McCabe, a surgeon at Massachusetts General Hospital. ″Prevention would be a whole lot better.″
On Sunday, Jeffrey Goodale, a 10-year-old boy who was submerged in a partially frozen lake for two hours, died at Massachusetts General. He had been on a heart-lung machine for 34 hours but never regained consciousness.
″It would have been very unusual for that child to return,″ McCabe said. ″But you don’t hurt anybody by erring on the side of trying to preserve life.″
Jeffrey slipped through the ice covering Lake Tashmoo near his home on Martha’s Vineyard about 11 a.m. Saturday. His parents watched as rescue workers pulled him from seven feet of water at 1:02 p.m.
When he arrived in the emergency room, the boy’s body temperature had plunged below 70 degrees and his heart was beating only a few times a minute. Surgeons performed open-heart massage and connected him to the heart-lung machine.
But it was obvious by nightfall that Jeffrey would not survive and he died of heart failure, Bander said.
Doctors believe that children who have survived being submerged for prolonged periods have been saved by the mammalian diving reflex, a function also used by whales and seals to live for a time without breathing.
The reflex changes the body’s metabolism so that all oxygen in the blood system is diverted to the heart, lungs and brain. When the water is cold, the metabolism slows down so much that very little oxgen is needed to stay alive.
″We’ve learned that with the cold and the reflex, some people have survived after prolonged (resuscitation) efforts,″ McCabe said.
Doctors believe the two elements saved Jimmy Tontlewicz, who was ″technically dead″ when divers pulled him from Lake Michigan on Jan. 15, 1984. The boy was placed in a drug-induced coma to control his brain activity, and within days, he moved his arms and legs. Then he awoke and began talking. Three months later, he left the hospital.
Today, Jimmy has recovered physically, but suffers from a short attention span, hyperactivity, and some behavior and speech problems he had before the accident, according to his doctors.
″The greatest legacy of Jimmy is that if the victim is in cold water, attempts must be made to revive them,″ said Dr. Robert Tanz, who treated the boy.
But other cases have not been as successful.
-On Dec. 17 in Newark, Ohio, rescue workers pulled 9-year-old Jeremy Ghiloni from an icy pond near his school bus stop. He had been submerged for 45 minutes. His heart was beating when he arrived at the hospital, but his body temperature was only 80 degrees. Doctors used a heart-bypass machine to warm his blood and raised his temperature to 96 degrees.
Jeremy survived for two days, but never regained consciousness. Doctors said the young boy died from severe damage to his heart.
-Andrea Christon, 9, of Kankakee, Ill., did not show vital signs when she was pulled from a river near her home after 30 minutes underwater but doctors restored her heartbeat and blood pressure with the aid of a respirator and medication. Andrea died 20 days later in June 1984.
-A 4-year-old girl survived for one day after being pulled from a creek in Fulton, Mo., in March 1984. Shannon Wright had been under water for 15 minutes, and it took doctors nearly two hours to restore her pulse.
-The same month, 11-year-old Venus Sinclair, who had been submerged in a polluted river for 20 minutes, survived for four days in a barbiturate-indu ced coma before dying of heart failure.