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Tuesday, July 28

July 20, 2015

Today is Tuesday, July 28, the 208th day of 2015. There are 157 days left in the year.

Highlights in history on this date:

1540 - Thomas Cromwell, Earl of Essex and King Henry VIII’s chief minister, is executed in England for treason on the same day Henry marries his fifth wife, Catherine Howard.

1588 - Lord Admiral Howard of Effingham sends British fire ships to destroy Spanish Armada off Calais, France.

1643 - English parliamentarian force under Oliver Cromwell takes Gainsborough.

1742 - Peace of Berlin between Austria and Prussia ends first Silesian War. Silesia is a historical region that is now southwestern Poland.

1794 - French revolutionary leader Maximilien Robespierre and 22 of his supporters are executed by guillotine before a cheering crowd in Paris.

1821 - Peru’s independence from Spain is formally declared.

1866 - Danish Constitution is revised to favor the king and Upper House.

1868 - Third Maori War breaks out in New Zealand. The Maori, Polynesian people, owned land on the North Island, but an increase in European immigrants led to demands for land purchases by the government.

1904 - Russia’s Minister of Interior Viacheslav Plehve is assassinated by a socialist.

1914 - World War I begins when Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia.

1937 - Japanese seize Beijing in China and subsequently occupy it until 1945.

1940 - British forces repulse German attack on the Mediterranean island group of Malta. The islands are later honored with the George Cross for bravery.

1945 - U.S. Army bomber crashes into Empire State Building in New York City, killing 13 people.

1959 - Preparing for statehood, Hawaiians vote to send the first Chinese-American, Hiram L. Fong, to the U.S. Senate and the first Japanese-American, Daniel K. Inouye, to the House of Representatives.

1965 - President Lyndon Johnson announces he is increasing the number of American troops in South Vietnam from 75,000 to 125,000.

1976 - An earthquake kills more than 240,000 people and almost completely destroys the city of T’ang-shan in northeastern China.

1986 - A car stuffed with explosives rips through a densely populated Christian residential area of east Beirut, killing at least 32 and wounding 140.

1989 - India agrees to pull its peacekeeping troops out of Sri Lanka, two years after pushing through a cease-fire between separatist Tamil Tiger rebels and the Sri Lankan government.

1990 - Alberto Fujimori takes over as Peru’s president.

1992 - The U.N. Security Council authorizes an urgent airlift of food and medicine for Somalia and demands the cooperation of warring factions.

1999 - After weeks of mass pro-democracy demonstrations, Iranian President Mohammed Khatami makes his first public appearance, pledging to continue a reformist agenda.

2001 - Alejandro Toledo of the centrist Peru Possible Party is sworn in as president of Peru.

2005 -The Irish Republican Army announces it is renouncing violence as a political weapon and pledges to resume disarmament — a potential breakthrough after years of deadlock.

2008 —Suicide bombers strike a Shiite Muslim pilgrimage in Baghdad and a Kurdish protest rally in northern Iraq, killing at least 57 people and wounding nearly 300.

2010 - Lawmakers in the region of Catalonia thrust a sword deep into Spain’s centuries-old tradition of bullfighting, banning the blood-soaked pageant that has fascinated artists and writers from Goya to Hemingway.

2012 — The Syrian government launches an offensive to retake rebel-held neighborhoods in the nation’s commercial hub of Aleppo.

2013 — U.S. announces the resumption of Israeli-Palestinian peace talks following years of stalemate after Israel’s Cabinet agrees to release 104 Palestinian prisoners convicted of deadly attacks.

2014 — Israel’s prime minister warns that the country faces a prolonged campaign against Hamas in the Gaza Strip as the military urges residents in parts of the embattled territory to evacuate in what appears to be a broadening of the three-week war.

Today’s Birthdays:

Ibn al-’Arabi, Arab theologist (1165-1240); Jacopo Sannazzaro, Italian poet, (1456-1530), Judith Leyster, Dutch painter (1609-1660), Beatrix Potter, British author and illustrator (1866-1943); Marcel Duchamp, French-born American painter (1887-1968); Jacques Piccard, French deep sea explorer (1922--2008); Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis, former U.S. first lady (1929-1994); Jacques d’Amboise, U.S. ballet dancer (1934--); Jim Davis, ‘Garfield’ U.S. cartoonist (1945--).

Thought For Today:

Verily, when the day of judgment comes, we shall not be asked what we have read, but what we have done — Thomas a Kempis, German theologian (1380-1471).