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Collection of Statues in Capitol

April 12, 1999

Statuary Hall, the two-story semicircular room south of the Capitol Rotunda, was the meeting place for the House until about the mid-19th century. On display there now are many of the Capitol’s collection of statues donated by states in honor of some of their most notable citizens.

By 1933, when the hall was crowded with 65 statues and the chamber could not support the weight of any more, Congress limited the number there and allowed others to be placed in other parts of the Capitol.

The entire collection consists of 96 statues _ two each by all but four states. Nevada, New Mexico, North Dakota, and Wyoming are eligible to donate one more.

A list:

Alabama:

Jabez Lamar Monroe Curry: served in the U.S. House and Confederate Congress, later a preacher and public education advocate in the South.

Joseph Wheeler: lieutenant general in Confederate Army, later served in U.S. House and in the Spanish-American War.

Alaska:

Edward Lewis ``Bob″ Bartlett: secretary of the Alaska Territory, seven-term U.S. congressman and Alaska’s first senator.

Ernest Gruening: newspaper and magazine editor, governor of Alaska Territory and then U.S. senator.

Arizona:

John Campbell Greenway: fought with Theodore Roosevelt,’s ``Rough Riders,″ later became mine, steel and railroad entrepreneur in Arizona.

Eusebio Kino, S.J.: Italian Jesuit priest, brought missions to the Southwest in the 17th century, built roads and mapped the region.

Arkansas:

James Paul Clarke: state legislator and governor, later in the U.S. Senate, where he lobbied for the construction of the Panama Canal and Filipino independence and championed social programs.

Uriah Milton Rose: scholar in languages, law and science, charter member of the American Bar Association and a U.S. delegate to the Second Peace Conference at The Hague in 1907.

California:

Thomas Starr King: Unitarian preacher and fiery orator whose speeches were credited with persuading California not to declare independence during the Civil War.

The Rev. Junipero Serra: Dominican priest who founded missions in the late 18th century, including at San Antonio, San Diego and San Francisco.

Colorado:

Florence Sabin: first woman to graduate from Johns Hopkins Medical School and to serve as president of the American Association of Anatomists, later advised the Colorado government and modernized the state’s public health system.

John L. ``Jack″ Swigert Jr.: Apollo 13 astronaut who later served as staff director of the U.S. House Committee on Science and Technology.

Connecticut:

Roger Sherman: self-taught scholar who was only person to sign all major documents of the Continental Congress, later served in the U.S. House and Senate.

Jonathan Trumbull: only colonial governor to support the American Revolution, sought Connecticut troops and supplies for Gen. George Washington.

Delaware:

John Middleton Clayton: Whig senator who exposed corruption in the Post Office Department, also served as chief justice of the Delaware Supreme Court and secretary of state under President Taylor.

Caesar Rodney: county sheriff and state judge who fiercely supported the American Revolution.

Florida:

John Gorrie: physician who advocated ways to fight tropical disease, later invented an ice-making machine.

Edmund Kirby Smith: mathematician and botanist who led troops in the Mexican War and the Civil War, where he was the last Confederate general to surrender.

Georgia:

Crawford W. Long: small-town doctor who was the first to use ether in surgery, later ran a large practice in Atlanta, where he did charity work.

Alexander Hamilton Stephens: vice president of the Confederacy who had befriended President Lincoln when the two served together in the U.S. House, later elected governor.

Hawaii:

Father Damien: born Joseph de Veuster in Belgium, a priest who moved to a leper colony where he built chapels and cared for children.

King Kamehameha I: warrior who united the Hawaiian Islands under one flag in 1810.

Idaho:

William Edgar Borah: served in the Senate from 1907 to 1940, where he advocated isolationism and social changes including the creation of the Department of Labor.

George Laird Shoup: first governor of Idaho and later a U.S. senator who advocated more compassionate treatment of American Indians.

Illinois:

James Shields: Irish immigrant and opponent of Abraham Lincoln who is the only person to have been a senator from three states _ Illinois, Minnesota and Missouri.

Frances E. Willard: president of Evanston College for Women, later organized the Prohibition Party and the Women’s Christian Temperance Union.

Indiana:

Oliver Hazard Perry Morton: Republican governor and U.S. senator who strongly supported the Union during the Civil War and unsuccessfully tried to win the presidential nomination in 1867.

Lewis Wallace: Civil War general credited with saving Cincinnati from the Confederate Army, later served as governor of the New Mexico Territory and wrote books, most notably Ben Hur.

Iowa:

James Harlan: university president and U.S. senator who worked to develop the West, appointed secretary of the interior by President Lincoln.

Samuel Jordan Kirkwood: Republican governor and U.S. senator who unsuccessfully ran for president against Grover Cleveland.

Kansas:

John James Ingalls: writer and editor who sided with anti-slavery forces in Kansas, later a U.S. senator who fought against monopolies.

George Washington Glick: state speaker pro tempore and later governor who advocated railroad commissions and livestock sanitation legislation.

Kentucky:

Henry Clay: House speaker, U.S. senator, presidential candidate and secretary of state; and designed the Missouri Compromise.

Ephraim McDowell: physician who pioneered abdominal surgical methods and operated on President Polk, founded Centre College in Danville, Ky.

Louisiana:

Huey Pierce Long: authoritarian late-1920s governor who won elections by promising public projects, later served in the U.S. Senate until he was assassinated.

Edward Douglass White: Supreme Court justice for 27 years, including 11 as chief justice; supported an increased role for the federal government.

Maine:

Hannibal Hamlin: governor, U.S. congressman, senator and vice president during Lincoln’s first term; also ran a small railroad company.

William King: shipping merchant who served as a militia major general in the War of 1812 and successfully petitioned for Maine’s secession from Massachusetts in 1820.

Maryland:

Charles Carroll: wealthy Roman Catholic landowner who signed the Declaration of Independence and was Maryland’s first U.S. senator, later served on first board of directors of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad.

John Hanson: strong advocate of U.S. independence who served as ``president of the United States in Congress Assembled″ under the Articles of Confederation, performing many duties of a head of state.

Massachusetts:

Samuel Adams: led much of the resistance to British rule in New England, such as protesting against the Sugar and Stamp Acts and helping organize the Boston Tea Party.

John Winthrop: colonial governor in the 17th century who called for a ``city on a hill″ based on Puritan values.

Michigan:

Lewis Cass: territorial governor of Michigan and 1848 Democratic presidential candidate, also served as a U.S. senator, secretary of war and secretary of state.

Zachariah Chandler: Detroit mayor and later U.S. senator who helped found the Republican Party, strongly opposing slavery.

Minnesota:

Henry Mower Rice: fur trader who drafted numerous treaties with the Ojibwe Indians, helped secure Minnesota’s statehood and served as one of its first U.S. senators.

Maria L. Sanford: University of Minnesota professor, a popular orator who advocated women’s rights, the education of blacks, conservation and the creation of parent-teacher organizations.

Mississippi:

Jefferson Davis: military commander and U.S. senator who became president of the Confederate States of America.

James Zachariah George: legal scholar who served as a Confederate colonel and later helped draft and defend Mississippi’s constitution.

Missouri:

Thomas Hart Benton: lawyer and editor who fought for Missouri’s statehood and served for 30 years in the U.S. Senate, losing his seat in 1850 largely because of his anti-slavery position.

Francis Preston Blair: U.S. congressman and later senator who helped secure Missouri’s allegiance to the Union during the Civil War and was the Democratic candidate for president in 1868.

Montana:

Jeanette Rankin: a social worker and the first woman in the U.S. House, the only member of Congress to oppose declaring war on Japan in 1941.

Charles Marion Russell: painter and sculptor whose depictions of cowboys and Indians characterized the West for many Easterners and foreigners.

Nebraska:

William Jennings Bryan: three-time Democratic presidential nominee; also served briefly in Congress and as President Wilson’s first secretary of state.

Julius Sterling Morton: editor who served as a territorial governor and advocated the modernization of farming, later President Cleveland’s secretary of agriculture.

Nevada:

Patrick Anthony McCarran: state legislator who sponsored nation’s first eight-hour-day work regulation, later served in the state supreme court and in the U.S. Senate.

New Hampshire:

John Stark: militia commander in the American Revolution, known for his independence and astute calculations.

Daniel Webster: U.S. congressman and senator known for his eloquence when speaking on national unity, also served as secretary of state under three presidents.

New Jersey:

Philip Kearny: leader of U.S. advance on Mexico City in the Mexican War, later a brigadier general, killed in the Civil War.

Richard Stockton: justice in New Jersey’s colonial supreme court who advocated a compromise with the British rather than independence.

New Mexico:

Dennis Chavez: U.S. congressman and 26-year senator who defended the rights of American Indians and tried to improve relations with Latin America.

New York:

George Clinton: first governor of New York, from 1777 to 1795, seized and sold loyalist lands; later served as vice president under Presidents Jefferson and Madison.

Robert R. Livingston: signer of the Declaration of Independence who later became head of New York’s judiciary, negotiated the Louisiana Purchase for Jefferson and founded the American Academy of Fine Arts.

North Carolina:

Charles Brantley Aycock: U.S. attorney and later governor who championed education _ resulting in the construction of some 3,000 new schools _ and called for an end to child labor.

Zebulon Baird Vance: moderate governor of North Carolina during the Civil War, later a U.S. senator.

North Dakota:

John Burke: editor and lawyer who served as governor from 1907 and 1913, taking power away from corrupt powerbrokers, later served as U.S. treasurer under President Wilson.

Ohio:

William Allen: U.S. congressman, senator and later governor who opposed the Civil War and President Lincoln and strongly supported U.S. expansion in the West.

James A. Garfield: 17-year U.S. congressman who was elected president in 1880 and assassinated the next year.

Oklahoma:

Will Rogers: popular actor, broadcaster and writer; spoke warmly of his Indian and pioneer heritage.

Sequoyah: Craftsman and blacksmith who created a Cherokee alphabet and served as an Indian envoy to Washington.

Oregon:

Jason Lee: Canadian missionary who led a mission in the 1830s to the Flatland Indians and was instrumental in organizing the Oregon Territory.

John McLoughlin: Canadian physician who administered the Pacific Northwest in the early nineteenth century, until acknowledging U.S. control in 1845 and becoming a U.S. citizen.

Pennsylvania:

Robert Fulton: painter who became interested in engineering and started the world’s first commercial steamboat service.

John Peter Gabriel Muhlenberg: American Revolution brigadier general; later U.S. senator and supervisor of revenue for Philadelphia.

Rhode Island:

Nathanael Greene: head of Rhode Island’s militia during the American Revolution and later commander of the Army of the South, capturing Charleston.

Roger Williams: English Puritan leader who was banished from Massachusetts and founded Rhode Island, declaring it open to all faiths.

South Carolina:

John Caldwell Calhoun: Orator who defended the South in its pre-Civil War disputes with the North and served in the U.S. House, Senate and as vice president and secretary of state.

Wade Hampton: lieutenant general of the Confederate forces and later governor and U.S. senator.

South Dakota:

William Henry Harrison Beadle: surveyor-general of the Dakota Territory who advocated the building of schools in the West.

Joseph Ward: Co-founder and president of Yankton College, supported South Dakota statehood and helped draft its first constitution.

Tennessee:

Andrew Jackson: U.S. Army major general in the War of 1812, Indian fighter, seventh president of the United States.

John Sevier: governor of the state of Franklin, before it was subdued by North Carolina, later served as North Carolina’s first governor and a U.S. congressman.

Texas:

Stephen Austin: leader of Anglo-American settlers to Texas and commander-in-chief of the forces that marched on Mexican forces in San Antonio, later served as commander of secretary of state of the Texas Republic.

Sam Houston: soldier and diplomat to the Indians who fought for Texan independence, elected the Texas Republic’s first president and later a U.S. senator.

Utah:

Philo T. Farnsworth: inventor who created an early television system and helped develop the microscope, telescope and radar.

Brigham Young: Mormon religious leader who led the denomination to Utah and became the territory’s first governor.

Vermont:

Ethan Allen: American Revolution militia commander who negotiated with the British over Vermont’s status.

Jacob Collamer: state legislator, U.S. congressman and conservative Republican senator who fought against harsh Reconstruction measures.

Virginia:

Robert E. Lee: career military officer who commanded Confederate forces and later served as a university president.

George Washington: leader of American forces against the British and the first president of the United States.

Washington:

Mother Joseph: born Esther Pariseau in Canada, led missionaries to the Pacific Northwest in the mid-19th century, designed and helped build schools and hospitals.

Marcus Whitman: missionary who joined settlers to Washington in the early 19th century, leading to the establishment of the Oregon Trail.

West Virginia:

John E. Kenna: U.S. congressman and later senator who fought for railroad regulations and, as Democratic minority leader, favored increased power for the executive branch.

Francis Harrison Pierpont: strong backer of Lincoln who led West Virginia’s secession from Virginia and became the new state’s first governor.

Wisconsin:

Robert M. La Follette: governor and later U.S. senator who led the Progressive movement, fighting for clean government and the regulation of monopolies and against imperialism.

Jacques Marquette: French missionary who studied Indian cultures and became the first white person to set foot in Wisconsin.

Wyoming:

Esther Hobart Morris: businesswoman who led Wyoming to become the first state to grant women’s suffrage, later one of the first women to hold judicial office.

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