The U.S. government is now closed for business. How will that affect us today?
A government shutdown doesn’t affect everything. All essential government activities continue.Holiday mail will be delivered, but many federal offices will not reopen until the shutdown ends.Most Americans will suffer relatively minor inconveniences. But taxpayers don’t like shutdowns, and politicians pay a price.
President Donald Trump and Congress failed to agree on a $5 billion plan to build a border wall with Mexico, so a partial government shutdown began at midnight.
The dispute affects nine of 15 large departments and dozens of agencies, including the departments of Homeland Security, Transportation, Interior, Agriculture, State and Justice, as well as national parks and forests. More than 800,000 federal employees will see their jobs disrupted, including more than half who would be forced to continue working without pay.
The U.S. Postal Service, busy delivering packages for the holiday season, isn’t affected because it’s an independent agency.
WHAT WORK GOES ON?
Social Security checks will still go out.
Troops will remain at their posts.
Transportation Security Administration officers will continue to man airport checkpoints.
In fact, virtually every essential government agency, like the FBI, the Border Patrol and the Coast Guard, will remain open.
Doctors and hospitals will get their Medicare and Medicaid reimbursements. But hundreds of thousands of federal workers now will be forced off the job, and some services will go dark. Even after funding is restored, the political repercussions could be enduring.
BUT NOBODY’S GETTING PAID
According to a report by Democrats on the Senate Appropriations Committee, more than 420,000 federal employees deemed essential continue to work without pay during a partial shutdown, including:
150,000 Homeland Security employees53,000 TSA workers54,000 Customs and Border Protection agents and officers42,000 Coast Guard employees41,000 law enforcement and corrections officersAs many as 5,000 Forest Service firefighters3,600 National Weather Service employees
SO THEN WHO’S NOT WORKING?
Meanwhile, more than 380,000 employees are furloughed — including nearly all of NASA and Housing and Urban Development and 41,000 Commerce Department employees.
About 16,000 National Park Service employees — 80 percent of the agency’s workforce — are furloughed, and many parks would close. Some parks already are closed for the winter.
Also furloughed: 52,000 staffers at the Internal Revenue Service, slowing analysis and collection of hundreds of thousands of tax returns and audits.
WHO DECIDED WHICH AGENCIES CLOSE?
The rules for who works and who doesn’t date back to the early 1980s and haven’t been significantly modified since. The Trump administration is relying mostly on guidance left over from former President Barack Obama.
Under a precedent-setting memorandum by Reagan budget chief David Stockman, federal workers are exempted from furloughs if their jobs are national security-related or if they perform essential activities that “protect life and property.”
The air traffic control system, food inspection, Medicare, veterans’ health care and many other essential government programs would run as usual. The Federal Emergency Management Agency could continue to respond to disasters.
On the other hand, the Washington Monument and many other iconic park service attractions will be closed, as would museums along the National Mall. In the past, the vast majority of national parks were closed to visitors and campers, but during the last government shutdown in January the Interior Department tried to make parks as accessible as possible despite bare-bones staffing levels.
HOW OFTEN DO SHUTDOWNS HAPPEN?
The shutdown is the result of a political standoff. But in the past, government shutdowns usually weren’t that big a deal. They happened every year when Jimmy Carter was president, averaging 11 days each. During Reagan’s two terms, there were six shutdowns, typically just one or two days apiece. Deals got cut. Everybody moved on.
Before a three-day lapse in January, caused by Democrats’ insistence that any budget measure come with protections for young immigrants known as “dreamers,” the most recent significant shutdown was a 16-day partial shuttering of the government in 2013. That one came as tea party conservatives tried to block implementation of Obama’s health care law. The government also shut for a few hours last February amid a partisan dispute over deficit spending.
WORKERS WILL GET PAID, BUT POLITICIANS PAY A PRICE
In a 1995-96 political battle, Democratic President Bill Clinton bested Speaker Newt Gingrich and his band of budget-slashing conservatives, who were determined to use a shutdown to force Clinton to sign onto a balanced budget agreement. Republicans were saddled with the blame, but most Americans suffered relatively minor inconveniences like closed parks and delays in processing passport applications. The fight bolstered Clinton’s popularity and he sailed to re-election that November.
In 2013, the tea party Republicans forced the shutdown over the better judgment of GOP leaders like Speaker John Boehner, R-Ohio. Republicans tried to fund the government piecemeal, but a broader effort faltered. Republicans eventually backed down and supported a round of budget talks led by Paul Ryan, R-Wis., then the House Budget Committee chairman.
Now, as House speaker himself, Ryan struggled to head off this shutdown just days before his long-announced retirement. Democrats led by California Rep. Nancy Pelosi take over the House on Jan. 3.