PRAGUE, Czechoslovakia (AP) _ Communist Party chief Milos Jakes warned in a report published Saturday that opposition forces are resorting to ''psychological terror'' against socialists.

Jakes and party ideologist Jan Fojtik, maintaining a hard line against dissidents, made clear that the Prague leadership is not prepared to listen to the Charter 77 human rights movement or other independent groups.

Various groups try to rally ''as an opposition,'' and ''their actions are widely backed and assisted from the West,'' Jakes was quoted Saturday by the CTK news agency as saying.

He alleged that the U.S. government-funded Radio Free Europe and Voice of America ''and others directly participate in organizing (anti-socialist forces).''

Jakes said foes of the system are moving from covert action to ''attempts at open confrontation, including psychological pressure, intimidation and even psychological terror against people who hold the positions of socialism.''

He apparently referred to 80 anonymous ''terrorist letters and calls'' the party daily Rude Pravo allegedly received, some of them reportedly wishing communist leaders to be hanged on lamp posts.

Jakes also expressed the leadership's concern over a petition, signed by more than 1,000 prominent artists and intellectuals, calling for the release of jailed dissident and playwright Vaclav Havel.

The party chief's toughly worded remarks contrasted with the official stands on nonconformists in neighboring Hungary and Poland.

Hungary's Parliament last month approved formation of independent political groups and Polish authorities are negotiating with the outlawed Solidarity free trade union on trade union freedom and other reforms.

''We are not calling for dialogue with everybody, only with those who are willing to contribute to the solution of the problems of our society,'' Fojtik was quoted as saying. ''We won't have dialogue forced upon us by those who want to judge our problems from the positions of the defeated reaction in Feburary 1948'' when the communists took power.

According to CTK, Jakes lashed out at ''activities of illegal religious structures and of some church representatives (and) their efforts to misuse the religious feelings of part of the believers against socialism.''

Czechoslovak Catholic Cardinal Frantisek Tomasek, in recent letters to the regime, has sharply criticized police violence in breaking up peaceful demonstrations in Prague and called for a conciliatory official stance.

Also, Jaroslav Cejka, chief editor of the Czechoslovak Communist Party's cultural weekly Tvorba Cejka has been fired, apparently for criticizing a report on a meeting with cultural figures carried by the party daily Rude Pravo.

Reporting on a Politburo session Friday, CTK said Cejka was ''relieved of his post'' and ''was entrusted with other duties,'' a customary cliche for being dismissed.

The surprising ouster came only two days after Cejka criticized Rude Pravo in Tvorba Wednesday for ''not doing a very good job'' covering a discussion between Politburo member Miroslav Stepan and a delegation of cultural figures.

The meeting was apparently brought about by the artists' petition.