Can ‘Jeopardy!’ whiz James Holzhauer be beat? The science of memory and recall, explained
Yes, he knows an encyclopedia’s worth of facts.
Yes, he will bet north of $20,000 without flinching.
And yes, he seems to hit the game buzzer with the reaction time of an Olympic sprinter.
But none of this would matter in the success of Jeopardy! champ James Holzhauer without one additional talent: the ability to retrieve information quickly from his brain.
Holzhauer, whose next game airs today, summons facts from his memory with such speed that few contestants have come close to beating him. He has raked in $1.69 million in 22 games that have aired to date, winning money at the fastest clip in the show’s history.
What will it take to topple the champ?
A few basic strategies can help anyone become faster at remembering facts, say psychologists who study memory and learning. Study after study has identified ways to make memories more durable and accessible, and those benefits tend to go hand-in-hand with greater speed, said Michael J. Kahana, a University of Pennsylvania professor of psychology.
But those who would slay the game-show giant should beware: In an interview via email, Holzhauer said he has used some of these tips himself.
Each time a person learns a piece of information, it is not stored in the brain in isolation, Kahana said. Instead, it is wrapped up in context: how it was acquired (reading a book, watching TV) and the way it was presented (learning about Napoleon as part of a lesson on battlefield tactics, say, or in the context of studying imperialism). The context of a memory also includes unrelated details such as the learner’s location and what else he or she was thinking about at the time.
So the key to learning something beyond a trace of a doubt is to overlearn it — reinforcing the knowledge by exposing yourself to it in a variety of contexts, Kahana said. That way, when you are asked to retrieve it, there is a better chance that the way the question is phrased will match something about the way you stored the information.
“The better the match, the faster the retrieval,” Kahana said.
Holzhauer has described how he read children’s reference books to prepare for the show, saying their easy-to-digest format allowed him to cover a wide range of material. But it also would have helped in the way Kahana describes: reinforcing knowledge that the champ had acquired previously in some other fashion.
Learning material in more than one context also can help the brain organize it, said Michael K. Gardner, a professor of educational psychology at the University of Utah. That allows for more efficient retrieval, quickly narrowing down a wide array of possibilities (historical figures — military leaders — France — Napoleon!) instead of going through a list of facts one by one.
“The more you have information organized, the fewer direct links you need,” Gardner said. “If you had to do a random search of everything in your memory, it would take you a long time to get to the answer.”
Finally, the key to solidifying the acquired knowledge is to test yourself. Passive reading is not enough.
Holzhauer, a professional sports bettor who lives in Las Vegas, shared few details in his email, but agreed that overlearning and self-testing made sense.
“I would definitely say I applied those two strategies in my studies,” he said.
It’s no secret that certain brain functions decline with age, among them reaction time, and at 34, Holzhauer is close to his prime.
Ken Jennings, who still holds the records for most Jeopardy! victories and the amount of regular-season winnings, told Wired magazine that during his championship run, he was about as good as Holzhauer in his ability to summon facts quickly. But if he were to go up against Holzhauer now? He has doubts.
“That’s not me, that’s Ken from 15 years ago, who was 29, still super mentally acute,” Jennings said of his appearances on the show in 2004. “It’s kind of a young person’s game.”
However, age need not be a total roadblock, as Kahana and colleagues found in a 1998 study conducted at Brandeis University.
Two groups of people, average ages 19 and 71, memorized a list of 25 words in five categories, then were asked to recite them in any order. The researchers measured how long each person took between items, comparing participants with similar levels of accuracy.
Young and old were equally fast when jumping from item to item within the same category (car-truck-train or corn-peas-beans).
But when switching categories (going from, say, truck to corn), all participants needed at least another second or two between reciting one item and the next. And on average, the older participants slowed down more than the younger ones.
On Jeopardy!, the same should hold true, Kahana said. When consecutive clues come from the same category, the effects of age should be negligible. But a younger contestant can get an edge by jumping from category to category. That is what Holzhauer does, though he does so for a different reason — trying to win all the higher-value clues early in a game so he has more money to wager if he lands on one of the coveted Daily Double squares.